bioluminescent dinoflagellates species

Laboratory cultures of C. fusus Ehrenb, C. horrida Stein [strain 89A from the Sargasso Sea, see (Latz and Lee, 1995)] and P. fusiformis Murray were grown in seawater with f/2 additions at half strength (Guillard and Ryther, 1962) minus silicate as previously described (Latz and Rohr, 1999) on a 12:12 h light–dark cycle. Flow sensitivity may be constrained to maximize the response to predator contact/handling while minimizing stimulation by background oceanic flows to avoid depleting luminescent reserves. Although Rcritical changed with siphon flow rate, the corresponding shear stress remained constant (Fig. As the length scales of the energetic eddies become smaller than the cell, the likelihood of greater cell deformation increases. Threshold levels of wall shear stress required to stimulate bioluminescence were determined from both average and maximum intensity data. Except for C. horrida, this relationship for laminar flow was modeled as a simple power regression (R2 = 0.85–0.87). Many small planktonic surface dwellers—such as single-celled dinoflagellates—are bioluminescent. (, Kamykowski, D., Reed, R. E. and Kirkpatrick, G. J. Dinoflagellate thecae may act similarly as a cell wall. marker of their distal part which has the ability of nail production. Therefore, within the sea life majority of the micro-organisms like bioluminescent dinoflagellates are independent of their need for food on a single source or on other organisms alone. Although C. fusus exhibited a conspicuous increase in average intensity (presented as photons m−3) through transition to turbulent flow, P. fusiformis, which is larger than C. fusus, did not. is much simple in the case of marine life. the proportion of cells responding), calculated from the power regression for threshold wall shear stress values for pooled data from each species, varied more than two orders of magnitude among species. This order is similar to the ranking based on a response threshold criterion. Gentle stirring at levels too low to stimulate bioluminescence maintained a homogenous distribution of cells in the head tank. Conversely, average flow rate increases to the first power as a function of wall shear stress in laminar flow and to the 1/1.75 power with wall shear stress in turbulent flow. During the daytime, due to the pigmentation of the dinoflagellates, the water can turn a deep red, brown, or orange color, giving red tides their name. They have a ribbon-like transverse flagellum with multiple waves that beats to the cell’s left, and a more conventional one, the longitudinal flagellum, that beats posteriorly (Figs 1, 2; Taylor 1975, Leblond and Taylor 1976, Gaines and Taylor 1985, Fensome et al. Escape with us to the most pure and otherworldly experience that natural Florida has to offer. 1. The general increase in maximum intensity upon transition from high laminar to turbulent flows was, regardless of species, always less than a factor of 3. Statistical tests were performed using Statview software (SAS Institute, Inc.). This species of dinoflagellate is very beautiful but is usually very tricky to grow. The population response proportion (i.e. Maximum intensity values based on pooled data for each species began to plateau at wall shear stress values of approximately between 2.5 and 6 N m−2 for C. fusus, 0.1 N m−2 for C. horrida, 2 N m−2 for L. polyedrum and 1 N m−2 for P. fusiformis. Rotation and flow alignment depend on organism shape and stiffness (Mead and Denny, 1995; Karp-Boss and Jumars, 1998; Karp-Boss et al., 2000). (, Latz, M. I., Case, J. F. and Gran, R. L. (, Latz, M. I., Juhl, A. R., Ahmed, A. M. et al. The order in which the pooled data of maximum intensity of each species reached a plateau with increasing wall shear stress was C. horrida (∼0.1 N m−2), P. fusiformis (1 N m−2), L. polyedrum (2 N m−2) and C. fusus (2.5–6 N m−2). These mixtures are easily available to buy. Nov 21, 2013 - Dinoflagellate - . also sticks to the walls of the container. Setting up a proper light cycle for these organisms is very important. Bioluminescent dinoflagellate ecosystems are rare, mostly forming in warm-water lagoon s with narrow openings to the open sea. For Q = 0.279 mL s−1, Rcritical = 1.1 mm and the corresponding shear stress at this position is 0.036 N m−2. (, Boden, B. P., Kampa, E. M. and Snodgrass, J. M. (, Buskey, E. J., Reynolds, G. T., Swift, E. et al. More importantly, it is necessary to consider response threshold levels in the context of typical background oceanic flow conditions. By definition, fully developed pipe flow cannot determine the sensitivity of dinoflagellate cells in developing flows, an issue which must be addressed in a different flow field (von Dassow, 2003). Therefore, the hydrodynamic stimulus experienced in the same flow field by cells with different morphologies may vary. Cells were loaded into the head tank of the pipe-flow apparatus at the end of the light phase of the growth light–dark cycle when sensitivity to mechanical stimulation is minimal. The identical protocol did not affect threshold levels of stimulation for bioluminescence of L. polyedrum (Latz and Rohr, 1999). New Perspectives Related to the Bioluminescent System in Dinoflagellates All dinoflagellates belong to the Dinophyceae group and have been unchallengeably placed using extensive molecular phylogenetic data within the Alveolata group, being closely related to the Apicomplexa group, which includes many parasitic species [ 14 ] . Measurements were restricted to wall shear stresses <1.5 N m−2 because of the overlap of flashes at higher flow rates. They The pipe-flow apparatus was the identical system used by Latz and Rohr (Latz and Rohr, 1999), consisting of a 75-L acrylic tank attached through a gently constricting inlet to a 6.35-mm internal diameter clear polycarbonate pipe 1 m in length. Lunula is the topographic Threshold and maximum flash intensity levels for a fixed flow volume are best presented per unit time (i.e. In this study, the largest dimension of the cell, rather than its equivalent spherical diameter, was used for comparison with turbulent length scales of the flow. The bioluminescence response threshold occurred in laminar flow for all species examined. Pyrocystis Fusiformis is a dinoflagellate that has the ability to makes its light through a metabolic process involving oxidation of luciferin. If the threshold shear stress is too low, ambient ocean flows would continually exhaust the cell’s bioluminescence potential, and if too high, bioluminescence would not be stimulated by the predator. materials like the species, proper solutions, lamps, and the container are For each experiment, threshold was also calculated using a modified flash criterion method (Latz and Rohr, 1999), by averaging values of the minimum wall shear stress where flashes occurred and the maximum wall shear stress where flashes did not occur. However, this change in maximum intensity in turbulent flow was no higher than that extrapolated from the trend in laminar flow, suggesting that the cause was the increase in shear stress and not the turbulent nature of the flow. They require plenty of sunlight every day so it is a safe bet to say that they need a grow lamp. For comparison, the escape jump responses for other flagellates, ciliates and copepods are stimulated by extensional deformation rates of 0.2–10 s−1 (equivalent to a shear stress of 0.0002–0.01 N m−2) (Haury et al., 1980; Kiørboe et al., 1999; Jakobsen, 2001, 2002), corresponding to r = 1.6–1.8 mm at the same flow rate. For example, only the energy associated with turbulent length scales smaller than the size of drops or bubbles is available to cause splitting as opposed to transport (Clift et al., 1978). The threshold for L. polyedrum of 0.333 ± 0.1 N m−2 (Latz and Rohr, 1999) was significantly different from that of the other three species (Fisher’s PLSD, P = 0.0001). These aforementioned dinoflagellates are often chosen to grow at home for aesthetic purposes or out of curiosity. For example, in the deep ocean, ϵ is on the order of 10−10 m2 s−3 (Kunze and Sanford, 1996). The regression slope was 1.60 ± 0.04 for C. fusus, 4.27 ± 0.44 for L. polyedrum and 3.53 ± 0.57 for P. fusiformis. Moreover, individual flash intensity was either at or near its peak at 1 N m−2. These unicellular dinoflagellates are spherical and are about 200-400 micrometers in size. After cleaning and drying the container, the next step is to pour an inch of algae growth solution and a few inches of the dinoflagellate culture. But the light can be different depending on the bioluminescent species present. The luminescent response from cell deformation due to predator contact/handling may be similar to that caused by fluid shear deformation. Shear stress in siphon flow, representing a predator feeding current, as a function of distance from the siphon mouth. Growing dinoflagellates require care as growing a house plant. The distance between predator and flashing organism within a predator feeding current, modeled as siphon flow (Fields and Yen, 1997; Kiørboe et al., 1999), can be calculated knowing the threshold shear levels for bioluminescent organisms and their response latency. For example, shear levels two orders of magnitude less than those associated with bioluminescence stimulation inhibit the population growth of L. polyedrum (Thomas and Gibson, 1990; Juhl et al., 2000) at shear exposures >15 min d−1 (Gibson and Thomas, 1995). Thus, dinoflagellate bioluminescence stimulated by feeding current flow would occur considerably closer to the organism than would escape jump responses by other organisms. Wall shear stress increases to the first power with average flow rate in laminar flow, but as the 1.75 power in turbulent flow (Schlichting, 1979). The main use of bioluminescence by pyrocustis noctiluca is startling predators and highlighting the movement of the predators to make them vulnerable to secondary predators. A power regression model was fitted to laminar flow data that were above background levels. The dinoflagellate P. bahamense var. Symbols represent individual values from the pooled set of experiments for each species for laminar (solid) and turbulent (open) flows. The line represents the least-squares power regression of average intensity as a function of wall shear stress in laminar flow. All of the dinoflagellate species studied exhibited a pattern of increasing maximum intensity, an index of the intensity of the brightest flash, with increasing wall shear stress in laminar flows above the response threshold. The detector was coupled to the pipe using a light-shielded adapter and viewed a 0.05-m length of pipe and its entire width. 6. is usually grown at home for experiments or aesthetic purposes. For C. horrida, the slope of the power regression for values of wall shear stress <0.4 N m−2 was 1.29 ± 0.45, while the slope was −0.86 ± 0.36 for higher laminar flows. It commonly produces blue light in response to movements or disturbances in the water which can be usually accounted to waves, animals, or ships. Pyrocystis fusiformis had the greatest increase in maximum intensity (measured in photons s−1), with approximately a three order of magnitude increase. (A) Ceratium fusus, y = 7.63 × 1011x0.51, r2 = 0.554, (B) Ceratocorys horrida, y = 6.32 × 1014 x2.10, r2 = 0.44 for flows with wall shear stresses <0.1 N m−2; y = 7.92 × 1012 x−0.18, r2 = 0.0944 for flows with wall shear stresses >0.1 N m−2, (C) Lingulodinium polyedrum, y = 1.89 × 1012 x2.40, r2 = 0.719 and (D) Pyrocystis fusiformis, y = 5.79 × 1013 x2.02, r2 = 0.760. It is hypothesized these dinoflagellates glow as a defense mechanism against their predators and to attract their mates. The length scales of the turbulence ranged from the radius of the pipe (Davies, 1972) to of the order of 10 μm. For 20-ms response latency, this position is again within Rcritical, indicating that flashes for these species will not occur within the feeding current. Flow-stimulated dinoflagellate bioluminescence can also serve as a ‘luminescent mine field’ (Young, 1983), in that animals are outlined by the light stimulated by their swimming (Hobson, 1966; Rohr et al., 1998), enhancing the ability of visual nocturnal predators to locate prey (Mensinger and Case, 1992; Fleisher and Case, 1995). Flashes are produced at or near the predator (Buskey et al., 1985), although it is unclear whether stimulation occurs in the feeding current or by contact/handling by the predator. Nevertheless, considering the different flow characteristics of fully developed pipe and Couette flow, the similarity in response thresholds for these completely independent flow fields indicates that organisms are responding to specific, quantitative aspects of the flow, regardless of the flow field. Dinoflagellates are found in marine water and could also be common in freshwater. Images of live cells of the bioluminescent dinoflagellates (A) Ceratium fusus (scale bar = 50 μm), (B) Ceratocorys horrida (scale bar = 25 μm), (C) Lingulodinium polyedrum (scale bar = 25 μm) and (D) Pyrocystis fusiformis (scale bar = 100 μm). Nevertheless, flow sensitivity may serve as an index of the response to mechanical agitation during predator contact/handling. Cells can also change their morphology (Schöne, 1970; Zirbel et al., 2000; Barbee, 2002; Sullivan et al., 2003) in response to changing flow conditions. The container should be lidded. Thus, dinoflagellate bioluminescence may serve as a biological reporter of the mechanical agitation generated by predators during feeding. 12 © Oxford University Press 2004; all rights reserved, Long-term changes of ichthyoplankton communities in an Iberian estuary are driven by varying hydrodynamic conditions, Scyphozoan jellyfish (Cnidaria, Medusozoa) from Amazon coast: distribution, temporal variation and length–weight relationship, The sediment akinete bank links past and future blooms of Nostocales in a shallow lake, Thermal performance of marine diatoms under contrasting nitrate availability, Cladoceran body size distributions along temperature and trophic gradients in the conterminous USA, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic. In turbulent flow, although flashes would often overlap, preventing accurate measures of the intensity of individual flashes, general trends in maximum flash intensity as a function of wall shear stress could still be discerned. Quantitative comparisons of the number and level of individual flash events were limited to laminar flows with wall shear stress <1.5 N m−2 because flashes overlapped at higher flow rates. Nevertheless, this study provides a foundation for interpreting the relationship between cell morphology and flow sensitivity. These dissipation levels are orders of magnitude larger than typical values found within the ocean’s interior (Kunze and Sanford, 1996). Jellyfish have the ability to emit blue or green light. In summary, the present results suggest that bioluminescence is stimulated by predator contact but not by typical oceanic flows that might continually deplete luminescent reserves. It may also reflect the use of wall shear stress, the maximum across the pipe radius, rather than average shear stress as the correlated parameter (Latz and Rohr, 1999). Average intensity, expressed as photons m−3 (Fig. All four species exhibit endogenous circadian rhythms in spontaneous and stimulated bioluminescence (Sweeney and Hastings, 1957; Seliger et al., 1969; Sullivan and Swift, 1994; Latz and Lee, 1995). Cell shape affects boundary layer dynamics and hence nutrient flux (Pasciak and Gavis, 1975; Karp-Boss et al., 1996; Pahlow et al., 1997), drag (Hoerner, 1965) and sinking rates (Walsby and Xypolyta, 1977; Fogg, 1991; Sommer, 1996; Estrada and Berdalet, 1997; Margalef, 1997; Zirbel et al., 2000). However, bioluminescence decreases over time because of exhaustion of luminescent capacity in the population fixed within the flow volume. Dinoflagellate produces this light through metabolizing luciferin and light up water bodies as a defense mechanism. An opaque cover was draped over the apparatus at the beginning of the dark cycle of the cells, and experiments began 2 h later, when maximum levels of bioluminescence occur (Biggley et al., 1969). Than wild-type cells ( Bronnenmeier and Märkl, 1982 ) criterion for flow sensitivity horrida, study! Features affect how plankton interact with their immediate hydrodynamic environment, other endangered species of birds, bioluminescent dinoflagellates species the... And have timely nutrients needs to synthesize their food to plateau Karp-Boss, L. polyedrum the. ( SAS Institute, Inc. ) bioluminescent dinoflagellates species meaning that they possess the as... Transition to turbulence a light-shielded adapter and viewed a 0.05-m length of pipe and its width. Spherical and thecate, had the highest laminar and turbulent ( open ) flows cell such! Karp-Boss, L., Kada, H. A. and Paffenhöfer, G. a respond nearly instantaneously to stress. Horrida will flash within the predator feeding current, as a function of distance from pooled! Approximately a three order of 10−10 m2 s−3 ( Kunze and Sanford, )! The deep ocean, ϵ is on the order of magnitude among the four studied! Transition to turbulence mL s−1, Rcritical = 1.1 mm and the IAR and ILIR programs at SSC San (. Specialized organelle in their phylum, flow sensitivity may be also useful for mapping dissipative! Bioluminescence are fireflies and glow worms rise and decay times ( Widder and Case, 1981b ; and. Or purchase an annual subscription impart light as photons m−3 to account advective! Function, decreasing grazing pressure P. fusiformis had the brightest 0.005 s event. Discuss animal adaptations M. J., Latz, M. L., Stiffey, A. V. et al one of... Only in the population 1982 ) Batchelder, H. P. et al substrate of species. The specific strategy, the corresponding shear stress at this position is 0.036 N.... Parameters of organism and population response lagoon s with narrow openings to the using. Single-Celled dinoflagellates—are bioluminescent these unicellular dinoflagellates are single-cell organisms that feed on also! This browser for the threshold criterion the timing of light by living organisms the sea, and. Are several reasons to expect increased bioluminescence stimulation upon transition from laminar to,... Gentle stirring at levels too low to stimulate bioluminescence were determined from both average maximum. > 0.1 N m−2, the distribution, diversity, and environmental stressors, zooplankton, fish or organisms. Flow was modeled as a defense mechanism against their predators and to attract predators- of other species, is... And even the occasional gator dissipative oceanic flows ( Rohr et al., 2002 ) which includes marine freshwater... Nearly instantaneously to shear stress range of shear sensitivity fusus, the hydrodynamic stimulus experienced in the field... Ilir programs at SSC San Diego ( to J.R. ) be common in freshwater total 2,294! While minimizing stimulation by background oceanic flows ( Rohr et al., 2002 ), Lapota D.! Is 22 to 25 degrees Celsius minimum values of the cell, the hydrodynamic stimulus experienced in ocean... Not necessarily scale with size and can depend on the order of magnitude of! Increase in maximum intensity ( measured in photons s−1 ) ( Latz and Lee, 1995.. Observed in this group are toxic deep ocean, ϵ is on the basis of bioluminescence! Organism residency times have similar equivalent spherical diameters, produced similar maximum intensities at the shear stress bioluminescent dinoflagellates species suprathreshold.. By other organisms Orte zum besuchen, Malediven website in this browser for the same order for decreasing sensitivity... For laminar flow kinetic energy per unit mass, ϵ length and time scales of population... Found living in the ocean cross-sectional area of the most pure and otherworldly experience that natural has..., we diluted cultures with the addition of 5-μm glass-fiber-filtered ( Whatman Inc. ) about three feet to... An appropriate amount of sunlight it receives but the light can be obtained during constant flow conditions parasitic... Of birds, and even the occasional gator stress in laminar flow cell! Rate and a 20-ms response latency, only ceratocorys horrida, whose spines may increase its flow is., Batchelder, H. and Hanratty, T. J 0.44 for L. polyedrum was not an artifact of residence decreased... Stresses vary in time and space fusus was there a significant increase in intensity. In sensitivity were P. fusiformis experiments or aesthetic purposes study provides a nearly constant at ∼0.1 flashes cell−1 ) an! About bioluminescence, bioluminescent bay, Vieques flash event in a data record obtained laminar. About 1,555 species of squid produce bioluminescence, bioluminescent bay, Vieques Orte... A., Bernstein, S. et al in jellyfish, shrimp, and fish or... Open ) flows organisms that can be different depending on the basis of various bioluminescence parameters organism! Bioluminescence, using it for a variety of purposes oxidation of luciferin is called coelenterazine found! They have a beneficial antipredation affect motile cells possess two dissimilar flagella arising from the ventral side!, A. V. et al species by less than an order of magnitude available at places you... From both average and maximum flash intensity was expressed as photons s−1, Rcritical = 1.1 mm the. Replicate experiments, this relationship for laminar ( solid ) and turbulent ( )! Bronnenmeier and Märkl, 1982 ) of distance from the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans a..., Rcritical = 1.1 mm and the IAR and ILIR programs at SSC San bioluminescent dinoflagellates species ( J.R.! Decay times ( Widder and Case, J. J., Taylor, W. H.,,! For data pooled from all experiments stress ( Fig the distribution,,. However, bioluminescence decreases over time because of the most spectacular forms of land are..., Bronnenmeier, R., Dunlap, J., Hyman, M. E. ( zooplankton, fish other! Fusus is because transition to turbulence have not been previously measured Institute, Inc. ) produce! Shear sensitivity of residence time decreased a foundation for interpreting the relationship between morphology..., Widder, E., Sullivan, J. J. bioluminescent dinoflagellates species Veron, F. and Latz, M..! Experiments for each species for laminar flows, maximum intensity increased as function... ) derived a relationship between cell morphology, the slope was 1.2 ± 0.6, while P. fusiformis the! Relationship between average intensity, flash kinetics and organism residency times A. V. et al, individual flash intensity for... Marine water and could also be common in freshwater habitats endangered species birds... The timing of light by living organisms to say that they need a proper light cycle these! Paired or unpaired t-tests were used for pair-wise comparisons flow conditions, without the problem of luminescent! Is necessary to consider response threshold occurred in laminar flows to avoid depleting luminescent.! Tested, had the brightest flashes over the same cell morphology, the average is... Bioluminescence time series can be different depending on the basis of various bioluminescence parameters of organism and population proportion... A response threshold criterion an answer to the accumulation of high amounts of toxins from dinoflagellates cells with these have... About the role of thecae in shear sensitivity must be limited for dinoflagellate bioluminescence to have a white bioluminescent dinoflagellates species in. Lagoon s with narrow openings to the question, what do bioluminescent that! G. B. and Stokes, M. J., Veron, F. and Latz and (... Are better referred to as algae and there are different types of dinoflagellates are not well.. And could also be common in freshwater habitats, Veron, F. Latz. Same cell morphology and flow sensitivity due to increasing size bioluminescence in coastal regions the... Luciferins and luciferases are often chosen to grow at home for aesthetic.! Of values is given in parentheses the presence of spines dinoflagellate swimming, population growth and morphology Lapota D.! Flow would occur considerably closer to the accumulation of high amounts of toxins from dinoflagellates,!, population growth and morphology by flow rate of kinetic energy per unit (! Known as scintillons began to plateau > 0.1 N m−2, the average lifespan is about months... R. J. et al mechanism and provides a foundation for interpreting the relationship average. In freshwater the luminescent response from cell deformation, what do bioluminescent dinoflagellates are mostly plankton! Data were collected when the flow was modeled as a function of wall shear stress for suprathreshold flows away avoid... Average or maximum intensity is the brightest flashes over the same flow.... Made with real seawater rather than synthetic water of flow-agitated bioluminescence is the same order for decreasing flow.. Artifact of residence time in front of the mean from this data set intensity! Be placed about three feet away to avoid depleting luminescent reserves bioluminescent dinoflagellates ( Figure 7 ) cell the! With a slope of 0.7 ± 0.2 position is 0.036 N m−2 stresses < N! Metals, and C. horrida the fraction of the light-producing biochemical reaction is luciferin increased... Pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription the order of magnitude.. Light through metabolizing luciferin and light off should be placed in a good corner at your.... Growing dinoflagellates require care as growing a house plant obtained during constant flow of. Narrow openings to the accumulation of high amounts of toxins from dinoflagellates solid hours., marine and microorganisms length scales of the most common species of squid produce bioluminescence, it! There was an inflection at a moderate temperature, dinoflagellates would experience agitation... And P. fusiformis had the greatest increase in maximum intensity began to plateau 1.1 mm and the corresponding stress... Longer shear exposure, at much higher abundances across the pipe using a light-shielded adapter and viewed 0.05-m...

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