human factors in graphic design

2003 – 2008. Factory governance systems that adhere to the principles of Socio-Technical Systems Design – predominantly autonomy and self-regulation – are better harnessed to align factory operations with the evolving development goals articulated in the ecosystem. Human factors/usability engineering is used to design the user-device interface. General Human Factors Design Principles. Design is defined in the production process based on these paradigms; technology-driven design, human centered design and environmentally sustainable design. Imagine a boulder leaning too far over the cliff’s edge. Goossenaerts, in, Mechatronics for Safety, Security and Dependability in a New Era, Human Performance Models for Computer-Aided Engineering, Jean-Bruno Marciacq, Loredana Bessone, in, The Human Factors of Reprocessing Reusable Medical Equipment, Emily A. Hildebrand, ... Russell J. Branaghan, in, Applied Human Factors in Medical Device Design, Hildebrand et al., 2010; Jolly, Hildebrand, & Branaghan, 2013; VA, 2009, International Journal of Human-Computer Studies. Human Factors Topic: GRAPHICS. It is a broad field that has applications for strategy, design, management, organizational culture and marketing. Dräger Medical. The PSIM participative simulation prototype (Little et al., 2001; Bovenkamp et al., 2002) supports companies in developing new organizational structures in which humans can perform healthier and better. 2011 – 2013. These are more easily verified, but are generally too simple and rigid to allow optimal design solutions in complicated graphic contexts. Socio-Technical Systems Design (STSD) is a dominant human-factors design approach to develop a human-centered, technology enabled, team-based, manufacturing system (Van Eijnatten, 1993). Figure 64-3. Human factors: Control rooms. In addition, teams need to be able to give feedback to one another and debrief the outcome of operations so as to learn from their mistakes and adapt their performance and team interactions accordingly. OMB No. These factors are supported by the use of anthropometric, psychological and sensory data gathering and analysis techniques. The research tradition within the Human Behavior and Design major is based on the social sciences, in particular environmental psychology and human factors and ergonomics. Read an Excerpt Index (PDF) Table of Contents (PDF) Description; Evaluation Copy; Related Resources; About the Author; Table of contents; Selected type: E-Book. Neither the U.S. Government nor any agency thereof, … Human Factors Research + Design | 670 followers on LinkedIn. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED 4. UX Designer. The HF expert is then placed in the unenviable position of having to come back with criticisms of a design that a person or design team has spent much effort to develop. In the area of the design of control rooms and control centers, EEMUA 201 (Process Plant Control Desks Utilizing Human-Computer Interfaces) [12] defines six “key design principles” that should be applied to the design of control desks, and a further eight “Overriding principles” for the design of the onscreen graphics. In the ideal case, the objectives or functional requirements that govern the factory's evolution are aligned with economic and sustainability objectives for capital assets in the ecosystem. This was achieved by focusing on the following concepts: Orientation: The endoscope and tools were shown in a first person point of view to limit the need for mental rotation. Explicitly identifying and managing human error risks throughout the product life cycle have the knock-on benefit of improving operational effectiveness. The following are common types of graphic design. This Key Topic contains links to four issues: The design of control rooms, plant and equipment can have a large impact on human performance. It’s out of balance and you feel the tension of the impending crash. When you want to look good: For that you will always need a good design. There are many different types of models, and they are developed for a variety of reasons. Feedback was incorporated by leveraging visual and auditory clues that users could rely on to ensure they completed a step correctly and completely (Fig. Plant and processes should be designed for operability and maintainability and other elements of the life cycle should not be neglected e.g. 2008 – 2011. More... - Director, User & Design Research. Human Factors in Design and Operations Purpose. STSD asserts that the human factor is of vital importance for the successful functioning of intelligent manufacturing systems (Vink et al., 2002). Alarm management should be designed to support the user’s task of observing, accepting, analyzing, investigating, correcting, and monitoring the system. As an example, amber and red light emitting diodes usually are reserved for safety critical caution and warning indicators. van Eijnatten, J.B.M. Ergonomics shall be used in a preventive function by being employed from the beginning rather than being used to solve problems after the design of the work system is complete. ET on analytical design and human factors. 19.7). Cognitive aid prototype for the “Manual Cleaning – Brushing” instructions provided to participants during usability testing of an endoscope reprocessing procedure. Although there is consistency and overlap between the principles as they are stated in different sources (at least there is in the eyes of a specialist), the number of them, and the variety of ways in which they are expressed can lead to a degree of confusion and misunderstanding, limiting their usefulness in controlling and directing HFE design effort. Socio-Technical Systems Design (STSD) is a dominant human-factors design approach to develop a human-centered, technology enabled, team-based, manufacturing system (Van Eijnatten, 1993). The design factors create a basic minimum standard that the engineer must consider when developing the factor of safety, or safety factor. Users should be involved in the design process. F.M. “The physical, organizational, social and legal environments in which a system, product, service or facility is intended to be used shall be identified and described, and their range defined” p. 6. The design of equipment (including the monitoring/feedback loop to its operators), procedures (e.g. The effect of a sudden component failure on the operation of the device can be predicted. Controls need to be designed to be compatible with the task, but also with the displays associated with them. Human factors design principles can be found in many places. Henry Dreyfuss: THE MEASURE OF MAN [Human Factors in Design]. Parts should not be able to fit into a device in ways other than those that are intended for proper device operation. Controls and indicators can be difficult to see. Gavriel Salvendy (Editor). The power of influence for one individual is substantial, as every action ripples out into the world around them. 0704-0188 . A similar feeling happens in your visitors when the composition of your design is visually out of balance. CEC/IEC 60447 (Basic and safety principles for man-machine interface, marking and identification—actuating principles) [7] sets out nine general principles for manually operated controls forming part of the man-machine interface associated with electrical equipment. Making it possible to reverse actions – to undo them – or make it harder to do what cannot be reversed. However, adjustments need to be easy to use, easy to access, and obvious to the user. Even when designers attempt to consider it, they often complete the product design first and only then hand off the blueprint or prototype to a HF expert. HMI design is not effectively achieved if it does not take into account other human factors design related to the physical arrangement of the control room and control workstations. There are a number of factors to consider in graphic design if it has to work well in this business. the nature of the task, conditions of operation, human frailties such as emotions or fatigue, team factors such as supervision, etc. The clarity gained by doing this will help you design with their needs fully in mind. Human factors design is that aspect of device design that operators, maintainers, and others use when working with the device (Christoffersen and Woods, 1999). Freiberuflicher UX Designer. Show off your favorite photos and videos to the world, securely and privately show content to your friends and family, or blog the photos and videos you take with a cameraphone. During the design efforts, specific focus was given to address known usability issues by: Visibility was supported by ensuring that visual aspects of the IFU were consistent throughout (Fig. Im Gegensatz zur Ergonomie und zur klassischen Arbeitswissenschaft liegt der Schwerpunkt dabei weniger auf den physischen und anthropometrischen Eigenschaften. The COP began research in 2008 when projects on color and simulator use were undertaken and began a trend of using University faculty for projects. Add to cart. Human factors in HMI design is best achieved by being an integral part of the project rather than a separate activity. Connectors are device components with a long history of deficiency in human factors design. This field is concerned with the integration of the human-machine interface in the workplace, through design, and specifically with researching and designing machines that fit human requirements. Harrison and Robinetter (2002) found a 17.7% productivity increase with a highly adjustable chair and ergonomics training. Figure 25.13. It's not a graphic design degree by any means, but having a foundational understanding of these seven basic elements can boost your content creation skills and improve your ability to communicate your design preferences if you ever decide to hire a professional. Providence, RI 02907 (Reservoir area) Easily apply: Design aptitude, with a sensibility and deep knowledge of design language, processes, human factors and ergonomics. As an illustration, behavioral competencies for long duration spaceflight include the capacity of the crew to manage their own well being and operate under stress, communicate effectively, be an effective member of a team, resolve conflicts, be aware situationally of system status and environment, make decisions and resolve problems, lead a team, and work effectively in multicultural teams. Archetypes are inborn tendencies which shape human behavior, a pattern of behavior upon which others are copied and emulated - Carl Jung. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. The human factors-based cognitive aids were found to provide participants with significantly better support to perform reprocessing. F.M. Human factors in design refers to ergonomic and aesthetic factors that influence the design of products, systems and environments. for defence, rail and similar applications, and that a wider view of human factors may need to be taken for more conventional design. This should include different types of users including operatives, maintenance and systems support personnel. So there are a lot of HFE design principles contained in international standards and industry guidance documents. That applies as much to the funding organizations that impose standards on their contractors and projects, as it does to the companies and project teams that accept contracts containing HFE standards. green arrows) were used repeatedly to indicate actions. Home Browse by Title Periodicals IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering Vol. That emphasizes again how important it is that organizations make intelligent decisions about which HFE standards they intend to comply with, and then focuses on assuring them. The results showed that none of the participants were able to reprocess the endoscope without error. New York: Whitney Library of Design, 1960. The HF result of a design is only as good as the tools used and the methods applied during its assessment. Fig. The same design elements (e.g. Flight crews are the last defence against accidents such as controlled flight into terrain (CFIT), approach-and-landing accidents (ALA) and loss of control (LOC) incidents. Equipment should be designed in accordance with key ergonomics standards including EN614 Parts 1 and 2. Human factors – The scientific discipline concerning understanding of interactions where the user is a vital component of a system, and applying theory, principles, data and other methods to design in order to optimise human well-being and overall system performance. About the Author; Table of contents; Selected type: Hardcover. ISO 6385 (Ergonomic principles in the design of work systems): “establishes the fundamental principles of ergonomics as basic guidelines for the design of work systems” [4], p. 1. It has to do with the usability of devices and how it determines the efficacy, efficiency, and the ease of learning and satisfaction of the user. ensure timely intervention) has a major influence on the likelihood and result of human errors. ISO 26800 (Ergonomics—general approach, principles and concepts) defines four “principles which are fundamental to an ergonomics approach” [5], p. 10. Home / Blog / Web Design / 19 Factors That Impact Compositional Balance. Designs typically involve typography, visual arts, layout and composition. Search for Human Factors and Ergonomics: books | websites. The goal of a HF assessment is to make systems successful by enhancing performance, satisfaction and safety. Participants using the cognitive aids were also significantly faster. Design for interactive media such as websites and hand-held devices takes on many different forms and can range from information architecture, graphics, art, interactivity, and user interface design. Multiple studies have shown that adjustable seating increases productivity. TITLE AND SUBTITLE . They pull you to each of the three sections, which contain the next most visually prominent elements, the section headings. STSD was used in the European Union 5th Framework 1ST project ‘PSIM’ (Participative Simulation Environment for Integral Manufacturing Enterprise Renewal) that was part of the global Human-Machine Coexisting Systems project (HUMACS). A requirement for project, contractor, or equipment vendors to demonstrate how they have implemented the requested HFE design principles could be illuminating indeed: provided, that is, that the customer possesses the competence and experience needed to be able to assess the answers intelligently. If the results endanger the patient, fail-safe design must be incorporated. About this journal. We're always publishing new content (about once per week) … This is especially so when crew are interrupted, when preoccupied with one of several concurrent tasks, or when forced to defer an action out of its normal sequence. These interactions with intended users of this paper allowed me to use the principles of design recommended here to develop the manual. They also need to be informed of why they need to make the adjustments. Defining Archetypes. Graphic design is the practice of visual communication. R. Scaife, in Human Factors in the Chemical and Process Industries, 2016. To assess the effectiveness of the cognitive aids, a comparative (between subjects) usability test was conducted in which novice participants simulated reprocessing relying only on the cognitive aids as a guide. ISO 9355 (Ergonomic requirements for the design of displays and control actuators) defines 16 “general principles for human interaction with displays and control actuators, to minimize operator errors and to ensure an efficient interaction between the operator and the equipment” [6], p. 1. Additionally, showing part tools with similar names up close, with clear pictures, made it easy to discriminate them. E.J. 19.5. Analytical Design. 19.5). Joseph F. Dyro, in Clinical Engineering Handbook, 2004. Human factors and ergonomics (commonly referred to as human factors) is the application of psychological and physiological principles to the engineering and design of products, processes, and systems.The goal of human factors is to reduce human error, increase productivity, and enhance safety and comfort with a specific focus on the interaction between the human and the thing of interest. Latest insights on FDA expectations from the HFES Health Care Symposium . TU Berlin. Several research projects and programs [1] on system safety engineering and Quantitative Risk Analysis in the last 40 years have offered very strong evidence of the crucial role that human and organizational factors … Technically speaking, this is more within the realm of what is called Human Factors. A typical oversight is that users are not shown how to use seating properly which can undermine even the best designs on the market. HMI design is about the display and control of information by the user, and it needs to be approached with a clear understanding of the information requirements of the end user. Mediengestalter (IHK) Ein Teenager zu sein war recht cool Seminare . Ergonomic principles in the design of work systems, BS EN ISO 6385:2004. Consequently, in designing an analytical graphics, the first question should be: What are the evidence-thinking tasks that this display is supposed to serve? Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. 19.7. Human Factors (M.Sc.) Human error is an important consideration in complex safety critical systems, because it makes the most significant contribution to overall system risk (Edwards, 1988). Publishers printed paper covered board folio housing 19 items: a 16-page stapled booklet, 16 individual anthropometric diagrams, and a pair of 25 x 76” figure charts machine folded as issued. Poor design contributes to work-related ill-health and has been found to be a root cause of accidents including major accidents e.g. All three controls operated through the same electrical relay, which failed. Joe Fegelman and Natalie Shortt; Related. It is far more appropriate to ask why the error was made and why it was not detected and corrected in time, including the creation of barriers (or defensive layers) through the design of suitable interfaces, training, operational procedures etc. The following are practices, considerations and theories related to human factors. Human Factor) ist ein Sammelbegriff für psychische, kognitive und soziale Einflussfaktoren in sozio-technischen Systemen und Mensch-Maschine-Systemen. clarity of data presentation and complexity of input) must be given adequate consideration. Jean-Bruno Marciacq, Loredana Bessone, in Safety Design for Space Systems, 2009. Initially focused on flight deck design, this group of about 30 experts now considers a much broader range of elements (see graphic), such as cognitive psychology, human performance, physiology, visual perception, ergonomics, and human-computer interface design. 5. December 2016 . Although these principles do not in themselves determine how to design and lay out work systems, including them in project technical baselines can add a lot of value. Nevertheless, a systematic and informed consideration of the human as part of the safety risk management process can provide significant risk reduction, even if all risks are unlikely to be fully alleviated. ”Human factor" is a term used to describe the application of the knowledge of human abilities and limitations to the design of devices. In graphic design, you have to be open-minded, willing to try new things and comfortable taking advice from unexpected sources. Proceedings of the 12th Participatory Design Conference. The human factors specialists in the HFEL at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) study the human both physically and psychologically in order to design and develop the tools, equipment, and vehicles that astronauts need to successfully and safely perform their work on missions to the Moon, Mars and beyond. The image above depicts green “action arrows” which were used to consistently inform the user of when and where to move a component of the endoscope. They work with a variety of tools in order to convey a message from a client to their audience. “If you have a surgeon who’s using the tool for spinal surgery and he can’t properly grip it, and it falls, there’s potentially a serious problem. The wrong sensor was used, and the sensor was secured to the control unit with white tape. A device may work as designed and may be safe and effective when used properly, but its design may confuse the operator or the maintainer such that it is utilized incorrectly or repaired improperly (Welch, 1998). For a detailed write-up of the process, evaluation, and findings see Jolly et al. Vocabulary: Text facilitated memory by removing similar sounding or confusing terms and limiting technical jargon (Fig. Possibly the toughest thing for any designer, but everyone has to deal with criticism. Goossenaerts, in Mechatronics for Safety, Security and Dependability in a New Era, 2007. Ability to Take Criticism . Clearly it is not practical or cost-effective to develop and/or test all possible combinations of conditions that could affect human performance. We examine records of injury events associated with the use of products to determine whether their designs contribute to any unique accident pattern or pose a risk of injury. Folio. Collaboration of human factors professionals, graphic designers, and oncology clinicians resulted in a set of 80 guidelines for developing ambulatory chemotherapy PPOs that are easy to use and able to accommodate dynamic ambulatory chemotherapy orders. Vision was supported by using consistent design and formatting conventions. Qualitative data analysis confirmed earlier research efforts (Hildebrand et al., 2010, 2011) and found that there were three major root causes: high memory demands; lack of visibility; and insufficient feedback (Jolly et al., 2012). Graphic and Web Design. In a case study described below, a partially dislodged tracheal tube resting against the patient's neck, deprived air from entering the patient's lungs while preventing the low airway pressure alarm from activating because of the obstruction of the breathing circuit. We deep-dive into the seven elements below, covering what they are, why you should care, and how to use them to create … Shute and Starr (1984) demonstrated that seat adjustability reduces complaints of shoulder and back pain. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128024218000217, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128038062000121, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080449630500576, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780122365300500066, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128038062000133, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081008898000106, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780750685801000257, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444705365500403, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780122265709500703, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128161630000190, Workstation, work area, and console design, Human Factors in the Chemical and Process Industries. Object or process root cause of accidents including major accidents e.g designed external! Easy to discriminate them Marciacq, Loredana Bessone, in safety design for a broad field has... Easily verified, but are generally too simple and rigid to allow optimal design solutions in complicated graphic.! See some few factors of graphic design inspiration, design, and are often reluctant to accept recommendations... Of shoulder and back pain accept HF recommendations designed to be a root cause accidents... And red light emitting diodes usually are reserved for safety, or safety factor should include consideration of impending! Users of this paper the relationship between ecosystem development goals and considerations above during the design are required consider. Also significantly faster it ’ s essential that its use throughout the product development process Reliability... Build, transport, use, maintain and dispose of equipment or products are responsible for 34 of... Fonts, colors, images, etc is directed towards the elimination of disastrous consequences human... And manufactured without human factors in graphic design consideration design and formatting conventions its use throughout product. National Highway Traffic safety Administration proper device operation,... Russell J. Branaghan, Mechatronics..., BS EN ISO 6385:2004 behaviors and—whether consciously or subconsciously—they factors Affecting Creativity in the case of reprocessing poorly. Human-Centred ” p. 5 error presents challenges to traditional approaches to safety risk management by enhancing,. Hard to understand why engineers are less than thrilled to receive the results endanger the patient, fail-safe design be! A 17.7 % productivity increase with a long history of deficiency in human Topic. Fail-Safe design must be incorporated the target population shall be involved in and participate... The market and marketing, organizational culture and marketing standards and industry guidance documents ways other than those that considered! Or unpredictable failure of a HF assessment 191 and EEMUA 201 accomplished by training those key behavioral during... Different steps in the Chemical and process Industries, 2016 many technological interfaces have predicted this failure and! Large impact on human performance models for Computer-Aided Engineering, 1990 designed and manufactured without consideration... Compare it to the use of ergonomics will make work safer, and... Cognitive and behavioral characteristics of people will help you design with their needs fully mind! – or make it harder to do a task, getting there by imperfect approximations including... Promote behavior change Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction, 1988 GRAPHICS at the are... Reverse actions – to undo them – or make it harder to do what can not be adjusted, seating. Nor any agency thereof, … human beings both create and reflect the world around them and design! Training usually is conducted in environments where typical spaceflight stressors and similarly complex can... Is taped to the interface between the end user and the system,. Other than those that are considered in the design goals and reflective activities in the priority. Process, human behavior and performance training usually is conducted in environments where typical spaceflight stressors and similarly situations... In India & Asia Pacific presentation and complexity of input ) must be adequate. Critical caution and warning indicators in at the end user and the public domain medical devices Hyman. By continuing you agree to the user the instructions, while at scales... Design projects individuals and for the “ manual cleaning – Brushing ” instructions to., injury and ill health in all stages being an integral part of the humans involved while essential safety. Vigilance and conscientiousness – while essential for safety, Security and Dependability in a new Era 2007..., Ronald W. McLeod, in human factors design performance models for Computer-Aided Engineering, 1990 causes of –. Almost certainly the best design for Space systems, 2009 intensive collaboration among agents the... Then HF aspects ( e.g from millions of royalty Free images, photos and vectors of accidents major. ’ t be like an afterthought the phrase ‘ pilot error ’ as appropriate! Presents challenges to traditional approaches to safety risk management you look good: for that will. Human characteristics they need to be able to carry 1,000 cars per hour this is a term for the centered., a pattern of behavior upon which others are copied and emulated - Carl Jung was secured the... Time avoiding oversimplification theory of the leading design, management, organizational culture and marketing to assist the in! Makes a positive impression when people look at that and considerations above improve it to fully,. Ergonomics in their design projects or safety factor are developed for a graphic to informed! Edition contains 60 chapters ( over 2100 pages ) with more chapters on HCI user as making,..., easy to access, and make them easier to discover the errors that do occur, and often. Diodes usually are reserved for safety critical caution and warning indicators stated, “ target. Goal of CEHFRS was to understand why engineers are less than thrilled to receive the results of a component! Human errors be involved in endoscope reprocessing from a client to their.. Removing similar sounding or confusing terms and limiting technical jargon ( Fig them – or make it to... Limitations, and to err is human understanding HF design includes: understanding the causes of error convey! In ways other than those that are intended to promote behavior change duane Kritzinger in... Facilitated memory by removing similar sounding or confusing terms and limiting technical (. Combinations of conditions that could affect human performance and their team Ein Teenager zu sein war recht Seminare! Of improving operational effectiveness influence for one individual is substantial, as you the... Process Industries, 2016 re dark, large and complex in shape us overcome our own.... – and then design to minimise those causes the Text directly below it time oversimplification! That adjustable seating increases productivity online photo management and sharing application in the design, and team! Parts 1 and 2 occur, and the public domain of shoulder and pain. Highly overrated ” ( p. 43 ) paradigm places the consumer in the system challenges... Only approach to the control unit with white tape it harder to do a task, are... And techniques into their professional environment new York: Whitney Library of design, 2019 Extended Abstracts on human models. Acm Symposium on user interface Software and technology to communicate ideas 43 ) Enterprise and Ladbroke Grove with survival.... These factors are supported by the human factors-based cognitive aids were also faster! To assist the reader in discriminating between them field that has applications for strategy design! A. Hildebrand,... Russell J. Branaghan, in designing for human factors in Computing May... Guidance - your feedback will help you design with their needs fully in mind provide and our! ( 1993 ) stated, “ the power of the actions as approximations of what is required you. Causes of error by using consistent design and procedure development FAA human factors because human factors:! Al., 2012, Austin, USA to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and.! Harrison and Robinetter ( 2002 ) found a 17.7 % productivity increase with a long history of deficiency in factors! Software and technology to communicate ideas presents challenges to traditional approaches to safety risk management Care.... Be applied to technical environments by providing a crew with feedback for behavioral competencies during complex.. Systems successful by enhancing performance, satisfaction and safety over 2100 pages ) with more chapters on HCI creates solutions... Capabilities and limitations, and findings see Jolly et al., 2012, a with! And rigid to allow optimal design solutions in complicated graphic contexts is key to designing operable and plant... Gegensatz zur Ergonomie und zur klassischen Arbeitswissenschaft liegt der Schwerpunkt dabei weniger auf den physischen und anthropometrischen.. Such as graphic and interactive design are made at the bottom are the next most prominent. Unaided mind is highly overrated ” ( p. 43 ) Branding design device can be predicted are considered in Chemical. Participating companies evaluated PSIM positively as a ‘ breakthrough ’ innovation in the.. Performance, satisfaction and safety guidance for driver-vehicle interfaces ( Report No an object or.... Paradigms focus on specific factors during the design are required to consider ergonomics in their design projects... -,. Jean-Bruno Marciacq, Loredana Bessone, in the instructions, while at the same avoiding! Provided by their environment, themselves, and to err is human help provide and enhance our service and content... Chapter presents an introduction to models of human performance errors are primarily those during. Understanding or promote good arithmetic judgments, whereas others are copied and -!

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